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Prototype efficiency test
  The prototype efficiency test for an operational unit is the first step prior to the capacity-enlarging refurbishment. Once the test is completed, the efficiency of the turbine-generator unit can be assessed. Only by this means, can the refurbishment results be testified.

  The prototype efficiency of a unit cannot be measured directly by instruments. By measuring the output, discharge, water head and other parameters, the efficiency of the unit under different working conditions can be calculated.

  The ultrasonic wave method for the efficiency test has a number of merits:
  1. the measuring result is much more accurate
  2. the sensors are much easier to fix or remove
  3. the flow field is not affected during the test, and almost no additional head loss
  4. the sensors respond instantaneously and the momentary flow can be measured.
  5. the automatic data-logging be achieved and the measurements be made on line
  6. cost effective

  The measuring methods, conditions and the accuracy of ultrasonic flow-meter:

Measuring methods Conditions Accuracy(%)
Material Dia. of pipe Straight length of pipe
Internally sticking Various >=Ø1.2m Len. of upstream>=5D
Len. of downstream>=2D
Externally sticking Penstock Ø0.1-3m Len. of upstream>=10D
Len. of downstream>=3D
Open channel Various sections with the width less than 1000m 1.5-2.0
  Here, D is the diameter of the penstock

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